low reward condition. Counter-attitudinal advocacy has been examined from a variety of perspectives, two of which, the dissonance and incentive interpretations, remain at the center of critical debate. In: Stroebe W, Hewstone M, editors. 6 Their attitudes change as a result of their behavior. Contents, bem's original experiment edit, in an attempt to decide if individuals induce their attitudes as observers without accessing their internal states, Bem used interpersonal simulations, in which an "observer-participant" is given a detailed description of one condition of a cognitive dissonance experiment. Perspectives on cognitive dissonance. This effect was also observed in the positive mood condition, F (1, 109).71,.01,.12 (high-dissonance:.00,.30; low-dissonance:.21,.30). For instance, individuals decide to stop smoking.
The final sample therefore comprised 116 participants (i.e., high-dissonance group: 18 with negative mood, 24 with neutral mood, 17 with positive mood; low-dissonance group: 21 with negative mood, 17 with neutral mood, 19 with positive mood). High dissonance) x 3 (mood: positive. This confusion of results intensifies upon examination of several later studies (Helmrich Collins, 1968; Linder, Cooper, Jones, 1967; and Burgoon, Miller, Tubbs, 1972) in which both incentive and dissonance predictions are supported. As they did so, they performed a memory-load task in which they had to retain either three (low-load) or five (high-load) items. Now, of course, we know that fire is the result of combustion, a process of molecular rearrangement, but gravity, and to a greater extent, cognitive dissonance, remain mysteries, elements of life for which we fail to understand the process, the method of combustion. Gawronski B, Strack. Social influence in the online recruitment of terrorists and terrorist sympathizers: Implications for social psychology research. In accordance with the feelings-as-information hypothesis 28, we expected a negative mood to induce systematic processing, and a positive mood to induce heuristic processing.
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The more participants engaged in systematic processing, the less they changed their attitudes in the high-dissonance condition. Autonomic nervous system activity in emotion: A review. It can occur without the completion of the counterattitudinal essay 20, 21, 22,. Waterman 19 designed an experiment in which 77 male college freshmen were asked to write an essay arguing against the position they actually agreed with. We expected a negative mood to induce systematic processing, and a positive mood to induce heuristic processing. A sentence contains one or more clauses. Second, this chapter refines the concept of public commitment (what is sometimes called new dissonance theory) to that of personal commitment, of which public commitment is one cause. The spyglass self: A model of vicarious self-perception.
Andreescu L, Gheorghiu R, Zulean. 21 In an experimental design similar to Zanna and Cooper's 1974 study, another variable was manipulated: whether or not the stance of the counter-attitudinal essay fell in the latitude of acceptance or the latitude of rejection (see social judgment theory ). A b Critcher,.